A number of reports, academic journal articles, and websites are referenced on this site. A complete list of the citations can be found below.

City of Chicago. (2020). E-scooter pilot evaluation.

City of Portland Bureau of Transportation. (2020). New mobility snapshot.

Claffey, M. & Hofer, S.. (2020, August 12) City of Chicago Launches 2020 Shared E-Scooter Pilot Program with Enhanced Focus on Equity and Safety. City of Chicago.

Closson, T. (2020, November 23) Electric scooters are now legal in New York. But are they safe? The New York Times.

Duarte, N. & Jerome, J. (2018, November 29) Comments to LADOT on privacy and security concerns for data sharing and dockless mobility. Center for Democracy and Technology.

Dwyer, F., Curran-Groome, W., & Harmon, K. (2020, August) E-scooter fatalities. Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety, The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center. 

Fang, K., Agrawal, A. W., Steele, J., Hunter, J. J., & Hooper, A. M. (2018). Where do riders park dockless, shared electric scooters? Findings from San Jose, California.

Guaquelin, A. (2020). Lock-to or not. Shared Micromobility.

Heinselman, Z., Milder, E., & Weiner, L. (2019) Scooter wars: Local approaches to 

regulating shared mobility devices. League of California Cities, 2019 Spring Conference.

Joselow, M. (2020, January 22). Meet the father of ‘micromobility’: Electric scooters, bikes. E&E News

Kaye, K. (2019, May 14). E-scooters becoming forum for mobility data privacy decisions and legislation. International Association of Privacy Professionals.

Keeling, B. (2018, April 16). SF issues cease and desist order for motorized scooters. Curbed San Francisco.

Kenney, A. (2019, January 7. Scooters, get off the sidewalk: Denver approves first big dockless change.

Kobayashi, L. M., Williams, E., Brown, C. V., Emigh, B. J., Bansal, V., Badiee, J., … & Doucet, J. (2019). The e-merging e-pidemic of e-scooters. Trauma surgery & acute care open4(1).

Lazo., L (2020, September 12, b). D.C. Council to weigh legislation further regulating scooter use in the city. The Washington Post.

Lazo, L. (2020, May 18, a). Bike-share and e-scooter companies, hit hard by the pandemic, may come back stronger. The Washington Post.

Los Angeles Department of Transportation. (2020). Year one snapshot: A review of the 2019-2020 dockless vehicle pilot program.

Mansky, J. (2019, April 18). The motorized scooter boom that hit a century before dockless scooters. Smithsonian Magazine.

Minneapolis Public Works. (2020, July 20). Motorized Foot Scooters.

Namiri, N. K., Lui, H., Tangney, T., Allen, I. E., Cohen, A. J., & Breyer, B. N. (2020). Electric scooter injuries and hospital admissions in the United States, 2014-2018. JAMA surgery155(4), 357-359.

National Association for City Transportation Officials. (2016). Equitable bike share means building places for people to ride.

National Association of City Transportation Officials. (2020) Shared micromobility in the U.S.: 2019.

National Association of City Transportation Officials (2018). Guidelines for regulation and management of shared active transportation.

National Association for City Transportation Officials. (2016). Equitable bike share means building places for people to ride.

National Association of City Transportation Officials, Better Bikeshare Partnership. (2018). Strategies for engaging community: Developing better relationships through bike share.

National Urban Mobility Alliance. (n.d.). Data and Sources.

North American Bikeshare Association (n.d.) Recommendations for a surface transportation reauthorization bill.

Online Bicycle Museum (n.d.) 1918 Eveready Autoped scooter.

Pascale, J. (2020, October 21) D.C. Council Approves Bill Requiring Scooters Be Locked To Racks, Capping E-Bike Speed. National Public Radio.

Prior, R. (2019, October 2). A man in Florida was arrested for cutting brake lines on dozens of electric scooters. Cable News Network.

Rayaprolu, S., McCarthy, L., & Gifford, J. L. (2020). Regulatory Harmonization and Collaborative Governance: Exploring the Shared Micromobility Policy Practices for Post-pandemic Deployment. Transportation Research Record Journal, Forthcoming.

Rivett, B., Lee, T., & Rainwater, B. (2020) Micromobility in cities: The current landscape. National League of Cities, Center for City Solutions.

Sam Schwartz. (2020, June 16). Shifting gears: Divvy bikeshare + ride hailing in Chicago during Covid-19.

Scholz, L., (2020, March 2). It’s a bird. It’s a plane. It’s an e-scooter? Georgia State University.

Seattle Department of Transportation. (2020, November 18). Scooter Share.

Shadel Fischer, P. (2020). Understanding and tacking micromobility: Transportation’s new disrupter. Governors Highway Safety Association.

Shaheen, S., & Cohen, A. (2019). Shared Micromobility policy toolkit: Docked and dockless bike and scooter sharing.

Shared-Use Mobility Center. (2019). Equity and shared mobility services.

Shorty Awards. (n.d.). From the 11th Annual Shorty Awards, Bird Graveyard.

Spin (2020) COVID-19 Update.

Spivak, C. (2020, April 29). Citi-Bike rolls out expansion to the Bronx, upper Manhattan amid pandemic. Curbed New York.

Striker, R. H., Chapman, A. J., Titus, R. A., Davis, A. T., & Rodriguez, C. H. (2016). Repeal of the Michigan helmet law: the evolving clinical impact. The American Journal of Surgery211(3), 529-533.

Tark, J. (2020). Micromobility products-related deaths, injuries and hazard patterns: 2017-2019. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.–2019.pdf?90dOQxCOSzGvGRFGX6UF6Z6zvQhV9R1P

Tilleman, L., & Feasley, L. (2018, December 7) Let’s count the ways e-scooters could safe the city. Wired Magazine.

Trivedi, B., Kesterke, M. J., Bhattacharjee, R., Weber, W., Mynar, K., & Reddy, L. V. (2019). Craniofacial injuries seen with the introduction of bicycle-share electric scooters in an urban setting. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 77(11), 2292-2297.

Van Audenhove, F., Rominger, G., Eagar, R., Pourbaix, J. Dommergues, E., Carlier, J. (2020) The future of mobility post-COVID. Arthur D. Little.

White, N., (2020, July 29) Chicago, Minneapolis give e-scooters another go. Next City.

Yanocha, D., & Allan, M. (2019). The electric assist: Leveraging e-bikes and e-scooters for more livable cities. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy.